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Macleod, after whom the town is named. After she left the Macleod family, she became quite the entrepreneur, running three businesses, including a boarding home, laundry and restaurant. We wanted to focus on Western Canada, precisely because so many of the stories told are about Central and Eastern Canada.
As a consequence of not knowing that history, when you talk about challenges, there is a tendency to disbelieve. There are church ceremonies, with various speakers who come in from all over. The community has always celebrated Black History Month because it presented an opportunity for people to get together and get to know each other and the different journeys that we have taken to get to Alberta. But as this year will mark, we too are learning about the history, s and earlier.
Q: What does this official recognition of Black History Month mean to you personally? It renders visible for Albertans and Canadians what is often invisibilized. Calgary has the fourth largest population, and Edmonton, the fifth. And yet when you look the Statistics Canada data, the black population is highly educated, but underemployed. For me, it helps to focus attention on these kinds of issues. To say , it matters , or it should matter. What is the assumption being made that renders black folk invisible, despite the high level of education, these diverse contributions?
For me personally, I hope this official recognition at the Alberta legislature makes these experiences — this history — visible, and allows us to talk about them in constructive ways. Harrison and Faye V. Harrison, — Urbana: Univ. Bond, George Clement. A social portrait of John Gibbs St. Clair Drake: An American anthropologist. American Ethnologist DOI: Drake, St. Papers, Sc MG These works include correspondence, office files, writing, research notes and materials, and information on foundations and organizations.
There is unrestricted access to these papers, which were a gift from St. Clair Drake. Harrison, Faye. An African diaspora perspective for urban anthropology. Special issue: Black folks in cities here and there—Changing patterns of discrimination and response. Urban Anthropology In this special edition in honor of St. Outsider within: Reworking anthropology in the global age. A compilation of theoretical essays on what Harrison terms an alternative anthropology that corrects and moves beyond its problematic history. Harrison additionally considers the impact of Black Metropolis and the ways in which both this work and Deep South Davis, et al.
Jordan, Glenn H. Reading St. This is a basic insight of micro-sociology. However useful it is to talk about macro-level phenomena like capitalism, the moral order, or rationalization , in the end what these phenomena refer to is a multitude of ongoing, unfinished processes of interaction between specific individuals. Nevertheless, the phenomena of social life do have recognizable forms, and the forms do guide the behaviour of individuals in a regularized way. A bureaucracy is a form of social interaction that persists from day to day. One does not come into work one morning to discover that the rules, job descriptions, paperwork, and hierarchical order of the bureaucracy have disappeared.
How did they emerge in the first place?
What happens when they get fixed and permanent? His analysis of the creation of new social forms was particularly tuned in to capturing the fragmentary everyday experience of modern social life that was bound up with the unprecedented nature and scale of the modern city.
State of the Discipline
In his lifetime, the city of Berlin where he lived and taught for most of his career expanded massively after the unification of Germany in the s and, by , became a major European metropolis of 4 million people. The development of a metropolis created a fundamentally new human experience. The inventiveness of people in creating new forms of interaction in response became a rich source of sociological investigation. Sociologists study social events, interactions, and patterns. They then develop theories to explain why these occur and what can result from them.
In sociology, a theory is a way to explain different aspects of social interactions and create testable propositions about society Allan, As this brief survey of the history of sociology suggests, there is considerable diversity in the theoretical approaches sociology takes to studying society. Paradigms are philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the research performed in support of them.
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They refer to the underlying organizing principles that tie different constellations of concepts, theories, and ways of formulating problems together Drengson, Parsons proposed that any identifiable social structure e. The variety of paradigms and methodologies makes for a rich and useful dialogue among sociologists. It is also sometimes confusing for students who expect that sociology will have a unitary scientific approach like that of the natural sciences.
However, the key point is that the subject matter of sociology is fundamentally different from that of the natural sciences. The existence of multiple approaches to the topic of society and social relationships makes sense given the nature of the subject matter of sociology. For the purposes of analysis, the contents of society can sometimes be viewed in this way, as in the positivist perspective, but in reality, they are imbued with social meanings, historical contexts, political struggles, and human agency.
This makes social life a complex, moving target for researchers to study, and the outcome of the research will be different depending on where and with what assumptions the researcher begins. We actively divide the flow of impressions through our consciousness into socially recognized categories of subjective and objective, and we do so by learning and following social norms and rules.
Therefore, this division performs an integral function in organizing modern social and institutional life on an ongoing basis. We assume that the others we interact with view the world through the natural attitude. Confusion ensues when we or they do not. Other forms of society have been based on different modes of being in the world. Despite the differences that divide sociology into multiple perspectives and methodologies, its unifying aspect is the systematic and rigorous nature of its social inquiry.
Sociology is based on the scientific research tradition which emphasizes two key components: empirical observation and the logical construction of theories and propositions.
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Science is understood here in the broad sense to mean the use of reasoned argument, the ability to see general patterns in particular incidences, and the reliance on evidence from systematic observation of social reality. However, as noted above, the outcome of sociological research will differ depending on the initial assumptions or perspective of the researcher. Each of the blind men studying the elephant in the illustration above are capable of producing an empirically true and logically consistent account of the elephant, albeit limited, which will differ from the accounts produced by the others.
While the analogy that society is like an elephant is tenuous at best, it does exemplify the way that different schools of sociology can explain the same factual reality in different ways. Within this general scientific framework, therefore, sociology is broken into the same divisions that separate the forms of modern knowledge more generally. In many ways the three spheres of knowledge are at odds with one another, but each serves an important human interest or purpose.
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The natural sciences are oriented to developing a technical knowledge useful for controlling and manipulating the natural world to serve human needs. Hermeneutics is oriented to developing a humanistic knowledge useful for determining the meaning of texts, ideas, and human practices in order to create the conditions for greater mutual understanding. Critique is oriented to developing practical knowledge and forms of collective action that are useful for challenging entrenched power relations in order to enable human emancipation and freedoms.
The emphasis is on empirical observation and measurement i. Since mathematics and statistical operations are the main forms of logical demonstration in the natural scientific explanation, positivism relies on translating human phenomena into quantifiable units of measurement. Two forms of positivism have been dominant in sociology since the s: quantitative sociology and structural functionalism.
Much of what is referred to today as quantitative sociology fits within this paradigm of positivism. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants to quantify relationships between social variables. Law-like statements concerning relationships between variables are often posed in the form of statistical relationships or multiple linear regression formulas; these measure and quantify the degree of influence different causal or independent variables have on a particular outcome or dependent variable.